Nathaniel Hawthorne, né Hathorne, was an American novelist, dark romantic, and short story writer. His famous novel "The Scarlet Letter" was published in 1850, followed by a succession of other novels. Much of Hawthorne's writing centers on New England, many works featuring moral metaphors with an anti-Puritan inspiration. His fiction works are considered part of the Romantic movement and, more specifically, dark romanticism. His themes often center on the inherent evil and sin of humanity, and his works often have moral messages and deep psychological complexity. His published works include a biography of his college friend Franklin Pierce, the 14th President of the United States.