Ottavio Piccolomini was an Italian nobleman whose military career included service as a Spanish general and then as a field marshal of the Holy Roman Empire. In the Thirty Years’ War he served under Albrecht von Wallenstein, Duke of Friedland. Piccolomini disapproved of Wallenstein’s policy and joined in the military conspiracy to oust the Duke. The conspiracy developed into a plot to assassinate Wallenstein, who was killed on 25 February 1634 at Cheb Castle. Piccolomini's reward was the estate of Náchod in the Orlické mountains in East Bohemia. Piccolomini's part in the assassination was set out in fictionalised form in Friedrich Schiller's play, "Wallenstein".