Chitz, Arthur, Musikwissenschaftler, Pianist und Komponist (1882-1944). Eigenh. Briefkarte mit U.Dresden, 24 Apr 1912.

An einen namentlich nicht genannten Adressaten: "Vor einigen Tagen erhielt ich eine Zuschrift des Herrn Chefredakteurs Specht vom Merker. Er ersucht mich darin, ihm in dem anläßlich der Wiener Musikwoche erscheinenden Sonderheft eines der von mir gefundenen Beethovenstücke mit begleitendem Aufsatz zur Veröffentlichung zu überlassen. Ich wäre Ihnen nun sehr dankbar, wenn Sie die große Liebenswürdigkeit hätten mir mitzuteilen, welcher Art die Artikel in dieser Festschrift sein werden, damit ich mich bei Abfassung meines Aufsatzes darnach richte (Länge etc.) [...]".

Arthur Chitz arbeitete unter Leo Blech als Aspirant und Geiger am Prager Landestheater und war Referent der Prager Deutschen Zeitung "Bohemia". 1906 ehelichte er Gertrud Helene Stern, die die Tochter des Chefredakteurs der Zeitung war, wo er als Referent arbeitete, zog 1908 nach Dresden und veröffentlichte in den Jahren 1912 und 1915 musikwissenschaftliche Studien, die in verschiedenen Zeitschriften erschienen sind. Gegenstand seiner publizierten Forschungsarbeit waren Beethovens Kompositionen für die Mandoline. "1914/15 erhielt er eine Stelle als Dozent für Theorie und Musikgeschichte an der Musikschule von Ernst von Schuch. Bis 1918 arbeitete er als Korrepetitor an der Dresdner Oper. Ab Oktober 1918 war er als Musikalischer Leiter des Dresdner Schauspielhauses beschäftigt. Später wurde er auch Musikdirektor des Schauspielhauses und Mitglied des künstlerischen Beirats" (Wikipedia). Zu seinem Werk zählen Lieder, Streichquartette und Bühnenmusik für Dresdner Uraufführungen und Neuinszenierungen von u. a. Shakespeare, Schiller, Hauptmann und Erich Ponto. Chitz verstarb 1944 im Ghetto von Riga.

Lewinsky, Josef, Schauspieler und Regisseur (1835-1907). Eigenh. Brief mit U.Wien, 8 Dec 1876.

Wie von alter Hand links unten in Bleistift vermerkt an Burgtheaterdirektor Franz Frh. von Dingelstedt: “Graf Wolf Baudissin sendet uns die beifolgende gute Übersetzung des reizenden Stückes Le Luthier de Crémone, welches im theatre francais so beifällig aufgenommen wurde, mit dem Ersuchen, Ihnen dasselbe zu übergeben u. zur Aufführung zu empfehlen. Obwohl uns bekannt ist, daß das Original Ihnen bereits im Juni vorgelegen, u. Sie selbes abgelehnt haben, so wage ich dennoch im Bewußtsein der reizenden Wirkung des Stückes u. seiner Würdigkeit, am Burgtheater aufgeführt zu werden, Ihnen die Übersetzung zu übergeben [...]”. Das Stück des französischen Schriftstellers François Edouard Joachim Coppée (1842-1908) war im selben Jahr, aus dem unser Brief datiert, erschienen; die erwähnte Übersetzung von Wolf Graf Baudissin (1789-1878) - der einst mit Dorothea Tieck (1799-1841) 13 Dramen von Shakespeare ins Deutsche übertragen hatte - erschien im Jahr darauf unter dem Titel ‘Der Geigenmacher von Cremona’.

Lewinsky selbst debütierte am Theater an der Wien, trat am Brünner Stadttheater auf und kam 1858 ans Wiener Burgtheater, dessen Ensemble er von da an angehörte. “Der Publikumsliebling, der 1865 zum k. k. Hofschauspieler auf Lebenszeit ernannt wurde, brillierte in allen großen Charakterrollen, besonders im Intrigantenfach, und war später auch als Komiker und in Volksstücken erfolgreich” (DBE).

Mit horizontaler Faltspur und kl. Schabstelle links unten (keine Textberührung).

Prokesch-Osten, Friederike, Schauspielerin und Schriftstellerin (1839-1906). 3 eigenh. Briefe mit U. ("Friederike" bzw. "F." bzw. "Fifi Prokesch").Aachen bzw. o. O., 1863 und 1865.

An einen namentlich nicht genannten Adressaten [wohl Michael Bernays, 1834-1897]: “Noch immer schulde ich Ihnen meinen besten Dank für Ihren liebenswürdigen Brief, welcher mich doppelt gefreut hat, da er mir so eine liebevolle Nachricht brachte. Ein gütiges Urtheil über meine Leistungen freut mich immer, wie viel mehr aus so geistreichem Munde [...]" (Br. v. 27. III. 1863).

"In Rußland wird es mir wohl gar nicht möglich sein zum Schreibtisch zu kommen und so versuche ich es denn heute so gut es denn geht für Ihre so herzlichen Zeilen zu danken [...]" (undat. Brief).

Die Tochter des Schriftstellers Johann Bartholomäus Goßmann und der Sängerin Johanna Konstanzia G. trat als Schauspielerin am Münchener Hoftheater und an anderen größeren Bühnen Deutschlands auf, ehe sie 1857 ans Wiener Burgtheater engagiert wurde. 1861 ehelichte sie den Sohn des Militärs, Diplomaten und Schriftstellers Anton Graf Prokesch von Osten (1795-1876) gleichen Namens, der - im Hauptberuf Offizier - die Werke seines Vaters sowie die von Friedrich Gentz herausgab.

Der mutmaßliche Adressat war als Privatgelehrter, Mitarbeiter bei der "Kölnischen Zeitung" und Vortragsredner tätig, bis er sich 1872 in Leipzig habilitierte. Daraufhin wurde er noch im selben Jahr als Prof. für den ersten Lehrstuhl für neuere deutsche Literaturgeschichte in Deutschland nach München berufen. Bernays "galt als Goethe- und Shakespeare-Spezialist und legte eine der größten Privatbibliotheken Deutschlands an" (DBE).

Die beiliegenden Gedichtabschriften, gez. mit "Michael Bernays" bzw. "M. B." oder "B", dürften ebenso wie der mit "Fifi [...] Prokesch" unterfertigte Brief trotz gegenteiligen Handschriftenbefunds a. d. Hand der Schauspielerin stammen oder allesamt Abschriften a. d. Hand eines Dritten sein, der nicht mit Michael Bernays (dem zu dieser Zeit noch jungen Literarhistoriker und späteren Professor für neuere deutsche Literaturgeschichte in München) oder ihrem Gatten Anton ident ist. Inhaltlich huldigen sie ihrer Schauspielkunst, ihrem Wesen u. drgl.

Foucher, Paul-Henri, playwright, theatre and music critic (1810-1875). 16 autograph letters, all but one signed.Paris, mostly 1827.

All letters are addressed to Foucher's friend, the writer Alcide Hyacinthe Dubois de Beauchesne, and mostly written in 1827, when Foucher was still employed at the War Department in Paris. In most of the letters he asks Beauchesne for tickets, but also for other favours: "[...] c'est jeudi à 8 heures, mon cher Beauchesne, que je vous ferai subir un des plus rudes travaux que je puisse vous commander... je vous lirai les trois premiers actes d'un drame [...]".

In 1828 Foucher met Alexandre Soumet, who advised him to read the play "Amy Robsart" by his brother-in-law Victor Hugo. Hugo himself found the play so bad that he intended to burn it, but he consented to let Foucher revise it. The play combined comedy and tragedy, and Foucher, under the influence of the enormous success of Shakespeare as recently performed in Paris, revised it further and produced it under his own name in 1829, but it failed so completely that Hugo came forward and avowed his own share in the production, taking responsibility of the non-success. Nevertheless, the whole affair did gain the young Foucher some notability.

Some letters on stationery with printed letterhead "Ministère de la Guerre".

Schnitzler, Heinrich, Schauspieler und Regisseur (1902-1982). 18 ms. Briefe mit eigenh. U. und 1 ms. Postkarte mit U.Wien, 1962-1969.

Inhaltsreiche Korrespondenz mit dem Filmwissenschaftler Walter Fritz (geb. 1941), zumeist über Fragen zum Urheberrecht und über die aktuelle Wiener Theaterlandschaft: "Ihren Mitteilungen zufolge führt Ihr Stück ja nicht den Titel ANATOL, sondern MEIN LEBEN IN ANATOLIEN und daher besteht wohl keine Gefahr urheberrechtlicher Schwierigkeiten [...]" (Br. v. 14. IX. 1963).

"[…] Ich erkläre Ihnen nun zum dritten Mal, dass ich Ihnen keineswegs den Vorwurf des Plagiats machen würde [...]" (Br. v. 26. IX. 1963).

"Als Erbe und Eigentümer der Rechte an den Werken meines Vaters habe nur ich über Veröffentlichungen aus dem Nachlass zu entscheiden. Selbstverständlich habe ich nichts dagegen einzuwenden, dass Sie die von Ihnen genannten Auszüge aus dem Nachlass im Rahmen Ihres Aufsatzes zum Abdruck bringen. Ich muss Sie nur darum ersuchen, mir den Aufsatz vorzulegen, bevor Sie ihn an die Redaktion der Filmkunst absenden. Ausserdem muss ich Sie darum ersuchen, an geeigneter Stelle (über die wir uns ja dann noch unterhalten können) ausdrücklich festzustellen, dass die betreffenden Zitate aus dem Nachlass mit meiner Einwilligung zum Abdruck gelangen und dass ich Ihnen das Material zu diesem Zweck zur Verfügung gestellt hatte [...]" (Br. v. 11. X. 1962).

"[...] Gleichzeitig mit Ihrem Brief traf [...] die neue Nummer [...] der Monatsschrift der ‚Vereinigung zur Gründung des Wiener Ensembles' ein und da lese ich die von Ihnen [...] verfasste Aufforderung: ‚... löst euch von der scheinbaren Grösse der Wiener Repertoiretheater [...], die doch in Wirklichkeit nur die Steifheit eines Museumsbetriebes ist ...'. Zu den Repertoiretheatern, die von Ihnen in dieser Weise charakterisiert werden, gehört natürlich auch das Theater in der Josefstadt und seine Filialbühnen. An den Bühnen dieses Museumsbetriebes wurden in den letzten Jahren - die folgende Aufzählung erfolgt aus dem Gedächtnis und ist ebenso willkürlich wie lückenhaft - Werke von Anouilh, Pirandello, Beckett, Ionesco, Osborne, Strindberg, Horvath, Walser, Musil, Arthur Miller, Tennessee Williams, Gorki, Ostrowski, Gogol, O'Neill, Molière, Shakespeare, Goldoni, Hauptmann, Kleist, Goethe, aufgeführt - Autoren, die Sie offensichtlich für verstaubt halten, denn nur so lässt sich ja die Charakterisierung ‚Steifheit eines Museumsbetriebes' auslegen [...]" (Br. v. 14. IX. 1963).

Teils auf Briefpapier mit gedr. Briefkopf und jeweils gelocht.

Marx, Karl, philosopher and economist (1818-1883). Autograph letter signed ("Karl Marx").41 Maitland Park Road, London, 1 Oct 1879.

Unpublished letter to the Chartist and radical freethinker Collet Dobson Collet (1812-98), in English: "My dear Sir, On my return from the seaside I found your letter d.d. 23 September. You will much oblige me by being so kind as to forward me some of the copies of the 'Revelations', as I have none left. Yours very truly [...]".

In very good condition, with intersecting folds, moderate wrinkling and a few creases; the sheet is bright, the writing dark, precise, and easily legible in spite of Marx's distinctively minute hand.

Marx was a close friend of the Collet family, which included the pioneering feminist activist Sophia Dobson Collet, social reformer Clara Collet, and the recipient of this letter, the editor of "The Free Press: A Diplomatic Review", to which Marx contributed a number of articles. The men became good friends and soon held weekly meetings at each other's houses to recite Shakespeare. The assembled group, which was formally coined as the Dogberry Club, included Marx's daughter Eleanor and Collet's daughter Clara, as well as Edward Rose, Dollie Radford, Sir Henry Juta, and Friedrich Engels. The publication to which Marx alludes, "Revelations of the Diplomatic History of the 18th Century", was originally serialized in the "Free Press" from August 1856 to April 1857.

Hemingway, Ernest, American writer and Nobel Laureate (1899-1961). Autograph letter signed.Paris, 6 November 1933.

A wide-ranging letter to Arnold Gingrich in Chicago ("Dear Major G"), editor of the newly minted "Esquire" magazine, written ten days after the publication of "Winner Take Nothing". Half of the letter is about writing short stories; the rest concerns Esquire (Hemingway’s comments on the first issue, his editorial advice, his arrangements with the magazine, etc.): "Your statement [in a recent letter] about when and where stories published absolutely correct and exactly what I wrote Scribners in July. Also wrote them what magazines to give credit to. That hasn't been done either. I am not responsible for their front matter. OK-ed final proof by cable with corrections. Never saw jacket until got book at Sylvia Beach’s [Shakespeare and Co. in Paris] [...] 'Mother of a Queen' and 'Day’s Wait' [stories in 'Winner Take Nothing'] are better stories than you think they are. But thanks very much for taking the trouble to comment. Trouble with 'One Reader Writes' [another story in the book] is that letter is exactly true and because I didn’t make you a picture of the woman. Papa was careless or it was too hot that day in Havana. I’ve written 3 books of stories now and there are 2 unsuccessful ones in the 3 books. I mean that [they] don’t do what they are supposed to do. There are no phony ones [...] Also when you have the time mark a volume - any one - of De Maupassant, Turgenieff, Chekov, Kipling, Merimee and see how you come out on stars and how many phonies there are. Turgenieff and Kipling rate plenty high. I’ve written more good stories and as good stories as Turgenieff - already. Kipling wrote 20 times as many and a damned sight better stories than I have. But I am going to get better as I get older and he didn't. So may have a chance. All right - Take a book of stories by [Sherwood] Anderson, [Morley] Callaghan, Faulkner and Co. Shit. I don’t compete with those punks. Faulkner will go straight for a damned fine wonderful first paragraph - Then get tired and start faking all over the place - Morley was damned honest but dull. He’s still dull. Since it seemed I learned everything I know from Sherwood better not criticize him. But the funny thing is that Sherwood and I both learned everything we knew at the start not from Stein but where Stein learned it - From Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. Anderson, however, wrote some damned fine stories [...]".

Hausner, Berta, Schauspielerin (1869-1932). 3 eigenh. Briefe und 1 eh. Portraitpostkarte mit U. sowie 1 Kabinettphotographie …Berlin, 17.XII. 1921 - 31.XII. 1928.

Schöne Briefe an den Wiener Industriellen Eugen Herz (1875-1944): “Trotzdem ich von Euch so lange Jahre fort bin kann ich doch sagen: unvergessen lebt Ihr, die Ihr mir nahe gestanden in meinem Herzen! Als ob es 2-3 Jahre wär[e]n - sehe ich Sie lieber Eugen - Franz - Marie Tewele u. mich - im Salettl am See bei der Tarokparthie [...] Was hat sich seit dem Alles abgerollt! Drama auf Drama, wie selbst ein Shakespeare oder Goethe nicht schildern könnte. Dabei wurde man alt, arm und kalt nur reich an Verlusten [...] Grüßen Sie mir bitte [...] meinen geliebten Papa Zierer der garnicht mehr an mich denkt [...]” (Br. v. 17.XII. 1921).

Als die Inflation in Deutschland im November 1923 ihren traurigen Höhepunkt erreicht und die Deutsche Reichsbank als höchsten Wert einen Geldschein über 100 Billionen Mark drucken lassen muß, schreibt die Schauspielerin: “Wie sehr Du mir geholfen hast kannst Du kaum ermessen - weil Ihr Gottlob nie, auch nicht in Wien’s schlechtester Zeit das mitgemacht habt was wir schaudernd miterleben müssen. Es ist einfach nicht mehr erträglich weil die Summen nicht aufzubringen sind. Jeder Tag entwertet das Geld immer mehr u. die Preise für Alles steigen bei jeder Entwertung. Dazu wird Alles jetzt nach Gold berechnet, Wohnung, Gas, Elekt[risches] Licht, Lebensmittel kurz Alles. Ein Brot kostet heute 800 Milliarden - gleich 80 Goldpfennigen - ein Pf Wurst 8 Billionen [...]”.

Die aus Olmütz stammende Schauspielerin debütierte mit fünfzehn Jahren am Theater ihrer Geburtsstadt und spielte anschließend in Karlsbad, Bremen, Brünn und Graz. Seit 1887 Mitglied des Deutschen Theaters in Berlin, wechselte sie nach einem Gastspiel in St. Petersburg an das Wiener Volkstheater, kehrte 1895 nach Berlin zurück und gehörte bis zu ihrem Abschied von der Bühne dem Ensemble des Kgl. Schauspielhauses an.

Eugen Herz war seit 1915 als kommerzieller und seit 1928 als leitender Direktor der Österreichischen Alpine Montangesellschaft tätig und vertrat die österreichische Eisenindustrie bei den internationalen Verbänden und europäischen Kartellen. Von 1930-33 auch als Vizepräsident der Wiener Handelskammer tätig, war Herz später Zensor der Österreichischen Nationalbank und Präsident des österreichischen Industriellenverbandes.

Die Portraitpostkarte mit halbfigürlicher Darstellung der Künstlerin; die Kabinettphotographie aus dem Hause E. Bieber in Berlin mit einem Brustbild und einer Widmung für “[m]einen jüngsten ‘Zukunftscollegen’ Herrn Steffi Herz mit den allerherzlichsten Segenswünschen für seine Carriere”.

[Album amicorum]. Friendship album box of Friedrich Ferdinand von Ammon.Göttingen 42, Heidelberg 26, and other places, 1815 to mostly 1817.

Exceptionally comprehensive and pretty friendship album assembled by the Prussian jurist and member of parliament Friedrich Ferdinand von Ammon (1794-1874) during his university years in Heidelberg und Göttingen. After serving as judge in various capacities, Ammon was chief prosecutor in Düsseldorf from 1832 to 1835, then councillor to the court of appeals in Cologne and president of the Rhenish Railroad. From 1851 onwards he served as president of the senate at the Cologne court of appeals and was a member of the Prussian parliament and house of representatives.

The album includes entries by a wealth of important personages who were active in forming the early German student fraternities (Ammon himself was a member of Heidelberg's Corps Guestphalia and of the Teutonia corporation). Among these friends were the jurist and writer Friedrich Wilhelm Carové (1789-1852), the pastor Ernst Welcker (1798-1858), the physician and politician Heinrich Carl Alexander Pagenstecher (1799-1869), Carl Graf von Moltke (1798-1866), the jurist and politician Franz Anton Good (1793-1866), Friedrich von Seeckt (1793-1870), the jurist and politician Julius Adolf Niethammer (1798-1882), the social politician and jurist Wilhelm Adolph Lette (1799-1868), the jurist Friedrich Blume (1797-1874), the mayor of Stralsund, Johann Carl Heinrich Hagemeister (1796-1860), the private tutor of prince Alexander of Prussia, Johann Hermann Altgeld (1795-1871), and the cameralist and forestry official Johann Christian Düring (1792-1862).

The engravings show portraits (including Ariosto, Cervantes, Euripides, Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Braunschweig, Haydn, Herder, Leibniz, Lessing, Schiller, and Shakespeare) and views (including the Weend paper mill near Göttingen, the Mariaspring hermitage near Göttingen, the Kerstlingeröder Feld near Göttingen, Heidelberg and Heidelberg Castle, the Deutsches Haus near Göttingen, Göttingen's maternity home, Hanstein and Rinbach near Göttingen, Kassel's Wilhelmshöhe, Göttingen's new observatory and the city's surgical hospital.

[Iffland, August Wilhelm]. Collection of 3 theatre bills for Iffland's 1812 guest performance at Weimar.Weimar, 1812.

Announcing the performances of "Don Ranudo de Colibrados" and Kotzebue's "Der arme Poet" on Dec. 27, as well as the "Lästerschule" on Dec. 28. 12. (Iffland playing Don Ranudo, Lorenz Kindlein, and the Baron); Shakespeare's "Merchant of Venice" on Dec. 29 (Iffland in the role of Shylock); and, finally, of Goldoni's "Der gutherzige Polterer" (Iffland's translation, with him playing Morhof) and Kotzebues "Der häusliche Zwist" (Dec. 30).

Iffland, who had created a sensation in 1782 as the first "Moor" in Schiller's "Die Räuber", gave his final performance in Weimar in the last days of December 1812. Goethe, who had previously succeeded in bringing the actor to Weimar in 1796, attended all performances and was Iffland's host on Dec. 28. A few days before Iffland's arrival, Goethe had written to Zelter: "It is probably one of the rarest of phenomena, and one, I think, that has never occurred with any other nation, that the greatest actor should generally select for himself parts, which are intrinsically unworthy of him, though, by his acting, he knows how to invest them with the highest momentary value" (12 Dec.) A few weeks after his departure, Goethe wrote: "Iffland's presence was a great delight to me. I gave myself up to the pure enjoyment of his talent, endeavoured to understand everything as he gave it, and did not trouble myself about what he gave [...] Thus I have greatly admired Iffland's way of throwing life into dead plays, - nay, his creation out of nothing [...] In addition, I thought it remarkable, that Iffland, who, in his written plays, aims at the most ample breadth, in his acting, conjures up again the conciseness and terseness of plays that are extemporized. How different our stage would seem, if he had not been forced to take this roundabout way [...]" (15 Jan. 1813).

Somewhat brownstained and wrinkled; slight edge defects; traces of folds and sewing. Numbered at the upper edge by a contemp. hand: "21"; "33"; "37".

Hermalin, D[avid] M[oyshe]. Muhamad. A shtudium fun dem ershaynen, leben und thetigkayt fun dem Musulmanishen …New York, 1898.

First edition of this Yiddish-language study of the Prophet Muhammad. Includes not only a biography of the Prophet and a discussion of the Qur'an and of Islam, but also chapters with a specifically Jewish perspective, such as on the Jewish population of Arabia (especially in Mecca and Medina), on Muhammad's "dreadful revenge on the Jews", etc. The author published similar accounts on Jesus of Nazareth ("Yeyshu Hanoytsri: zayn ersheynen, leben und toydt: algemeyner iberblik vegen der entshtehung fun kristenthum") and Sabbatai Zevi ("Der Terkisher Meshieh: a historish romantishe shilderung iber dem leben und virken fun Shabtay Tsvi").

The highly versatile journalist, novelist, and playwright D. M. Hermalin (1865-1921) was born and educated in Bucharest, where he worked for various newspapers before being compelled to leave Romania and emigrating to the United States at the age of twenty. Here, he taught French and Hebrew and achieved distinction as a much-admired family page editor for Yiddish newspapers such as the "Folks Advokat", the "Yiddisher Herold", and the "Wahrheit". He wrote thrillers, but also translated Tolstoy, Maupassant, Zola, Bocaccio, and Shakespeare into Yiddish; his 1901 translation of Goethe's "Faust" was the first complete Yiddish version.

Binding severely rubbed; extremeties bumped. Paper browned and brittle with noticeable fingerstaining. The lower wrapper cover, preserved inside the boards, has an English title: "Mohammed. A Study Of the Advent, Life and Activity of the Mussulman Law-Giver and the Results of his Religion", with the publisher's advert of books on sale ("oysferkoyf katalog fun mayn aygenem ferlag") on the reverse. Extremely rare: no copy in trade records; online library catalogues list copies at YIVO, Yale, Harvard, University of California, and Florida Atlantic University, as well as the British Library; several research libraries in the US hold microform copies.

Balthus (i. e. Balthasar Klossowski de Rola), French painter (1908-2001). Autograph letter.Chassy Montreuillon, "Octobre", n. d. ca. 1954.

Beautiful and insightful letter to the writer and poet Pierre Jean Jouve, enthusiastically praising his work, particularly the 1954 publication "Mélodrame" that Balthus considers "the most important poetic event since the Fleurs du Mal". In the final paragraphs of the letter, Balthus briefly talks about himself and his "crises of work", describing them as a "continuous struggle with the impossible". In closing, he sends greetings to Jouve's wife, the psychoanalyst Blanche Reverchon-Jouve, and quotes from Shakespeare's 30th sonnet with a slight departure: "One of the precious friends hid in death's dateless night".

Extracts from the letter (translated): "Dearest, no one knows better than I who you are - and in no-one but me your work, unique today, will resound more deeply. [...] In order to tell you all that I would like to say, it would have been necessary for me to have the gift of language - that I do not have. I only have poor, shapeless stammering and I am reduced to silence at the height of my incapacity and suffer painfully from it. [...] - I think that your greatness, because from the foot of the mountain one cannot see the peak, and your solitude is precisely that of the highest altitude. I have read and reread and I still read Mélodrame. This colossal little book, the crowning achievement of your work, is undoubtedly the most important poetic event since the Fleurs du Mal. [...] - I live out of time. Earlier it was winter, then summer and now the leaves are falling again and I am still at the same point and terribly tired of a continuous struggle with the impossible perhaps and the crises of work follow one another at an exhausting rhythm, the pursued goal vanishing every time I believe to seize it. What also makes you the greatest artist of this time is the adequate form, the form that dresses the thought and moves with it like the flesh on the skeleton. Nobody has that today in any field. It is the opposite that we always see at this point".

Well preserved.

[Album amicorum]. Friendship album of the theologian Matthias Harnwolf with more than 250 …Mostly Leipzig and Jena, but including Berlin, Frankfurt/Oder, Halle/Saale, Liegnitz, Magdeburg, Sopron, and Waldau, 1769-1773.

Exceptionally comprehensive friendship album assembled by the theologian Matthias Harnwolf(f), who served as preacher in his native Agendorf (Ágfalva in Hungary) from 1783 until his death in 1809.

Harnwolf was a well-travelled man, of which fact his album gives ample evidence. The first entry is also the most prominent: it is written by none other than Friedrich Nicolai, Berlin's figurehead of Enlightenment, who inscribed a quote from Horace ("Aequam memento rebus in arduis servare mentem", dated "1763"). Further entries are mainly from Harnwolf's university years at Leipzig and Jena (1769-73), including by Johann Friedrich Bahrdt (professor and superintendent in Leipzig, 1713-75), Anton Friedrich Büsching (theologian and geographer, 1724-93), Joachim Georg Darjes (pastor, jurist, philosopher and economist, 1714-91), Johann August Ernesti (director of Leipzig's St. Thomas School, 1707-81), Johann Ernst Faber (professor of oriental languages, 1745-74), Justus Christian Hennings (moral philosopher and Enlightenment thinker, 1731-1815), Johann Friedrich Hirt (theologian and oriental scholar, 1719-83), Georg Friedrich Meier (philosopher, 1718-77), Johann August Nösselt (theologian, 1734-1807), August Friedrich Wilhelm Sack (philosopher, theologian and famed pulpit orator, 1703-86), Georg Christoph Silberschlag (scientist, 1731-90), Johann Joachim Spalding (theologian, hymnwriter and philosopher, 1714-1804), Lorenz Johann Daniel Suckow (naturalist, 1722-1801), Wilhelm Abraham Teller (theologian, hymnwriter and professor, 1734-1804), Johann August Heinrich Ulrich (philosopher, 1746-1813), Karl Friedrich Walch (legal scholar, 1734-99), Johann Georg Walch (theologian and lexicographer, 1693-1775), Johann Ernst Immanuel Walch (rhetorician, philologist and geologist, 1725-78), Johann Ernst Basilius Wiedeburg (physicist, astronomer and mathematician, 1733-89), and Friedrich Samuel Zickler (theologian, 1721-79).

While the bulk of contributors are theologians, jurists, and scientists, there is also an entry by a distant relative of Johann Sebastian Bach: young Johann Georg Bach (1751-97), who contributes a quotation from Shakespeare ("Men's evil manners live in brass; their virtues we write in water", dated Jena, 1772), would become organist at St George's in Eisenach a few years later; also, there is a musical manuscript by Johann Adolf Leutholff based on Klopstock's poem "Die Auferstehung" ("Resurrection"), which song remained in German Protestant hymnals well into the 20th century and became recognizable worldwide when it was adapted by Gustav Mahler in his 2nd Symphony.

[Columella]. Scriptores rei rusticae. Opera agricolationum: Columellae: Varronis: Catonisque, …Reggio Emilia, 18 Sep 1496.

Profusely annotated copy of this influential work on agriculture, including a contemporary manuscript index of 38 leaves. A volume with interesting early provenance, and preserved in its original binding, this copy is illuminated with an as yet unidentified coat of arms. It is rare to find such a beautifully preserved incunable in its contemporary binding, especially when submitted to readership and considering the use for which it was intended.

This important collection of treatises on the sciences of agronomy by classical authors is especially important for the chapters devoted to the cultivation of wine. While all the classical authors in this collection deal with the art of viticulture and wine-making, Columnella's treatise is the most important. Books III and IV are entirely devoted to this specialty.

This edition is apparently the first book from the press which Dionysius Bertochus established in Reggio Emilia. Bertochus first worked in Bologna in 1487 (where he printed a single work); he is known to have worked in Venice between 1489 and 1494. Of his productions in Reggio Emilia, we know of three books printed between 1496 and 1500. A very active and mobile printer, he also published two works in Modena between 1499 and 1500. According to BMC, this edition is based on Benedictus Hectoris, published in Bologna in 1494.

"The works of the four 'geoponic' authors, as writers are called who deal exclusively with all branches of agriculture, have been published many times in one and the same volume. Although all four deal with viticulture and the art of winemaking, by far the most original and interesting writer is Junius Moderatus Columella [...] His Books III and IV are devoted entirely to the vine, of which he describes fifty-eight species; to the choice of the soil and aspects of the vineyards; and to the planting, pruning, and cultivation of the vines up to the time of the vintage. In Chapters 18 to 24 of Book XII, Columella describes in detail the vintage and how to make and take care for different sorts of wine” (Simon, Gastronomica, p. 34).

The binding is most likely German; the decoration is close to the one in the Folger Library (Fine and Historic Bindings from the Folger Shakespeare Library, 1:7) on a 1494 edition of Thomas A Kempis.

Vives, Juan Luis. De institutione foeminae [...] libri tres, mira eruditione, elegantia, …Antwerp, 1524.

Very rare first edition of "the first systematic study to address explicitly and exclusively the universal education of women", commissioned by Henry VIII's wife, Catherine of Aragon, who was at the time rearing her own daughter, Mary Tudor. Translated and adapted by numerous followers, Vives' treatise would go on to be read in almost every European vernacular, often by women themselves. The first edition, however, is rare in census and in commerce - and contains passages, particularly on chastity and intellectual capacity, which were entirely re-written in later incarnations. A fundamental document for the role of women in Early Modern society - and particularly in Early Modern England - this copy is especially remarkable for its state of preservation. An early reader of Vives has here added his own comments to the chapters on the seclusion of maidens and examples of feminine virtue.

"De Institutione Foeminae Christianae" consists of 3 books, one for each stage of woman's life: maidenhood, marriage, and widowhood. In his preface to Queen Catherine, Vives quotes Aristotle to the effect that states which do not provide for the education of women deprive themselves of a great source of their prosperity; yet as Charles Fantazzi points out, Vives is in fact here caught in a delicate double bind, "insistent on a subordinate, submissive role for women, the text must take care to expound its message not only without alienating the queen but rather, indeed, with the goal of winning her favour." Despite its dedication and although Vives specifically adapts his prose style for a female readership, the treatise is hardly pro-woman: "the 'Education' is determined to be both a reference book for men on how to control their women, as well as an edifying treatise for women to absorb as a source of proper behaviour" (Kolsky). Nevertheless, Vives' praise of women's intellectual capacity and his advocation of some form of universal learning for females are viewed as landmarks for modern historians of women and gender.

According to Fantazzi, "'De Institutione' enjoyed an enormous popularity and was generally regarded as the most authoritative statement on this subject throughout the sixteenth century, especially in England, where it found favor with Catholics and Protestants alike. There can be no denying that merely by attaching such importance to the education of women, Vives laid the groundwork for the Elizabethan age of the cultured woman." It was rapidly translated into English, enjoying some nine editions in that language during the 16th century alone (cf. Higginbotham, p. 69). According to Pollie Bromilow, the dozens of vernacular translations were partly aimed at women themselves, who had no knowledge of Latin; and thus a large segment of its readership during the 16th century was in fact female. Appearing in an undated edition as early as 1528 or 1529, the English translation is rather an adaptation of Vives' text begun by Thomas More but completed by his household tutor, William Hyrde, who must have used the present edition in its preparation.

In 1538 Vives brought out a revised Latin edition reflecting many changes to the original text. This is the edition most commonly cited by scholars, probably thanks to its greater availability. The sections on maidens and the preservation of maidenhood (in all its meanings), however, were substantially re-written - notably, treating many of the same subjects which interested the annotator of the present copy! Chapter 6, on virginity, for example, "was subjected to a complete revision, so that it bears little resemblance to the first published version. It is obvious that Vives struggled over the proper approach to this topic. In the original version, he suddenly abandons his more discursive style for a rather personal and, one might add, paternalistic tête-á-tête with a young woman" (Fantazzi, p. 18). Vives' views on women's intellectual capacities also develop between the two editions.

At the outbreak of the Reformation Vives was a close friend of Erasmus, who had commissioned him to write a commentary on Augustine's "City of God" in 1521. Perhaps seeking refuge from the political and religious turmoil of Europe, Vives turned his attention to England from this point onward. He dedicated his edition of "De Civitate Dei" to Henry VIII in 1522, and already in May of 1523 was able to present a manuscript of his "De Institutione Foeminae Christianae" to Queen Catherine in person. At Henry's court he grew close to the circle of Thomas More and produced a further educational treatise, "De Ratione Studii Puerilis". Thanks to his growing opposition to Henry VIII's divorce proceedings, however, Vives was placed under house arrest by Cardinal Wolsley from February to April 1528, and upon his release sensibly fled the country - only to return briefly later that year in the role of Catherine's legal adviser.

Provenance: later stamp of the Harrach Library on title-page. The collection originated as the personal library of Graf Ferdinand Bonaventura von Harrach, Austrian envoy to Spain (1637-1707), and explains the characteristically Spanish binding on the present example. Ferdinand's son Aloys followed in his father's footsteps; but after his death in 1742 the collection was transferred back to the remaining Harrach family in Vienna. Finally, the collection wound up in the family castle 'Schloss Bruck an der Leitha', in Lower Austria. We have handled numerous other Harrach copies, which seem to have formed a cohesive 'personal reference library' of 16th and 17th century works for this seventeenth century statesman.

A very good copy. OCLC shows just four copies in American institutions: Harvard, the Massachusetts Center for Renaissance Studies, Yale, and the Huntington.

Ionesco, Eugène, Romanian-French playwright (1912-1994). "Qu'est-ce que l'avant garde en 1958". Autograph manuscript signed.N. p., 1958.

Important text about artistic creation and the avant-garde, published in "Les Lettres françaises" of 17 April 1958 as part of the survey: "What is the avant-garde in 1958?". In Ionesco's view, art must strive to express realities that are "new and ancient, present and inopportune, living and permanent, particular, and, at the same time, universal". A label like "the avant-garde" is a mere afterthought to this goal: "To want to be part of the avant-garde before writing, not to want to be part of it, to refuse or choose an avant-garde is, for a creator, to construe things the wrong way round". For Ionesco the avant-garde is "only the current, historical expression of an inactual actuality (if I may say so), of a trans-historical reality". Therefore he is very sceptical of political art, as the work of art "is nothing if it does not transcend the temporary truths or obsessions of history". Several artists, historical and biblical figures are mentioned as examples of the "profound universalism" Ionesco is arguing for, including Buddha, Shakespeare, the Spanish mystic Juan de la Cruz, Proust, Chekhov, Brecht, and Picasso. In his own work, Ionesco tries "to say how the world appears to me, what it seems to be for me, as sincerely as possible without concern for propaganda, without intention of directing the consciences of contempraries. I try to be an objective witness in my subjectivity". The essence of his theatre is the contradictory, the absurd: "Since I write for the theatre, I am only concerned with personifying, embodying a comic and tragic sense of reality at the same time." Ionesco describes a childhood memory of a senseless act of violence which first invoked the feelings of vertigo, anguish, and transience that he tries to convey in his art: "I have no other images of the world apart from those, expressing the ephemerality and the harshness, the vanity and the anger, the nullity or hideous, useless hatred. This is how existence continued to appear to me". In closing, he aims to reconcile avant-garde and "living tradition", past and present: "One has the impression, also, that the more one is of one's time, the more one is of all times (if one breaks the crust of superficial topicality) [...] The youngest, newest works of art are recognizable and speak to all eras. Yes, King Solomon is my leader; and Job, this contemporary of Beckett".

With a stricken-out title "Avant-garde et tradition", corrections, and typograph marks. The first three pages with a tear minimally affecting the text. Some black fingerstains and stains, minor tears, and browning.